Resources on Weaponised AI

The following list compiles internal and external resources on the broad topic of weaponised AI. This list covers both the international debate on lethal autonomous weapons systems at the CCW as well as policy reports and journal articles.

On this page you will find resources on the following topics:
Publications by the AutoNorms team


  • Bode, I. and Huelss, H. (In press). Autonomous Weapons Systems and International Norms. McGill – Queen’s University Press.

Book Chapters

  • Bode, I. and Huelss, H. (2021). “The Future of Remote Warfare? Artificial Intelligence, Weapons Systems and Human Control.” In Remote Warfare: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by McKay, A., Watson, A. and Karlshøj-Pedersen, M. Bristol: E-International Relations Publishing, 218–33.

Peer Reviewed Articles

  • Huelss, H. (2020). Norms Are What Machines Make of Them: Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Normative Implications of Human-Machine Interactions. International Political Sociology, 14(2), 111–28.

  • Biegon, R. and Watts, T. (2020). Remote Warfare and the Retooling of American Primacy. Geopolitics, 1–24.

  • Bode, I. and Huelss, H. (2019). Introduction to the Special Section: The Autonomisation of Weapons Systems: Challenges to International Relations. Global Policy, 10(3), 327–30. 

  • Bode, I. (2019). Norm‐making and the Global South: Attempts to Regulate Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems. Global Policy, 10(3), 359–64. 

  • Huelss, H. (2019). Deciding on Appropriate Use of Force: Human‐machine Interaction in Weapons Systems and Emerging Norms. Global Policy, 10(3), 354–58.

  • Bode, I. and Huelss, H. (2019). Introduction to the Special Section: The Autonomisation of Weapons Systems: Challenges to International Relations. Global Policy, 10(3), 327–30.

  • Bode, I. and Huelss, H. (2018). Autonomous Weapons Systems and Changing Norms in International Relations. Review of International Studies, 44(3), 393–413.

  • Huelss, H. (2017). After Decision-Making: The Operationalization of Norms in International Relations. International Theory, 9(3), 381–409.



Citations in the Press/Media

2. Reports
Think Tanks and Research Institutes 


International Organisations and NGOs 
  • Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. (2015a). Report on Activities – Convention on Conventional Weapons second informal meeting of experts on lethal autonomous weapons systems – United Nations Geneva 13-17 April 2015.  
  • Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. (2015b). Report on Activities Convention on Conventional Weapons Annual Meeting of High Contracting Parties United Nations Geneva 12-13 November 2015. 
3. Journal articles
  • Altmann, J. and Sauer, F. (2017). Autonomous Weapon Systems and Strategic Stability. Survival 59(5), 117-142. 
  • Amoroso, D., Tamburrini, G . (2020). Autonomous Weapons Systems and Meaningful Human Control: Ethical and Legal Issues. Current Robotics Report 1, 187–194. 
  • Amoroso, D. and Tamburrini, G. (2021). In Search of the ‘Human Element’: International Debates on Regulating Autonomous Weapons Systems. The International Spectator 56(1), 20-38. 
  • Asaro, P. (2019). Algorithms of violence: Critical social perspectives on autonomous weapons. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 86(2), 537–555. 
  • Crootof, R. (2015). The Killer Robots Are Here: Legal and Policy Implications. Cardozo Law Review, 36(5), 1837-1916. 
  • Ekelhof, M. (2017). Complications of a Common Language: Why it is so Hard to Talk about Autonomous Weapons. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 22(2), 311-331. 
  • Ekelhof, M. (2019). Moving Beyond Semantics on Autonomous Weapons: Meaningful Human Control in Operation. Global Policy, 10(3), 343–348. 
  • Garcia, D. (2018). Lethal Artificial Intelligence and Change: The Future of International Peace and Security. International Studies Review, 20, 334–41. 
  • Gill, A. (2019). Artificial Intelligence and International Security: The Long View. Ethics & International Affairs, 33(2), 169-179.  
  • Haas, M.C. and Fischer, S.C. (2017). The evolution of targeted killing practices: Autonomous weapons, future conflict, and the international order. Contemporary Security Policy, 38(2), 281-306. 
  • Haner, J. and Garcia, D. (2019). The Artificial Intelligence Arms Race: Trends and World Leaders in Autonomous Weapons Development. Global Policy, 10(3), 331-337. 
  • Heyns, C. (2016). Human Rights and the use of Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS) During Domestic Law Enforcement. Human Rights Quarterly, 38(2), 350-378. 
  • Horowitz, M. C. (2016). Why words matter: The real world consequences of defining autonomous weapons systems. Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, 30(1), 85–98. 
  • Horowitz, M.C. (2019). When speed kills: Lethal autonomous weapon systems, deterrence and stability. Journal of Strategic Studies, 42(6), 764-788. 
  • Leys, N. (2018). Autonomous Weapon Systems and International Crises. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 12(1), 48-73. 
  • Maas, M. (2019). How viable is international arms control for military artificial intelligence? Three lessons from nuclear weapons. Contemporary Security Policy, 40(3), 285-311. 
  • Payne, K. (2018). Artificial intelligence: A revolution in strategic affairs? Survival, 60 (5), 7–32.  
  • Petersson, M. (2021). Small states and autonomous systems – the Scandinavian case. Journal of Strategic Studies, 44(4), 594-612. 
  • Roff, H.M. (2014). The strategic robot problem: Lethal autonomous weapons in war. Journal of Military Ethics, 13, 211–227. 
  • Rosendorf, O. (2021). Predictors of support for a ban on killer robots: Preventive arms control as an anticipatory response to military innovation. Contemporary Security Policy, 42(1), 30-52. 
  • Rosert, E. and Sauer, F. (2021). How (not) to stop the killer robots: A comparative analysis of humanitarian disarmament campaign strategies. Contemporary Security Policy, (42:1), 4-29. 
  • Rosert, E. and Sauer, F. (2019). Prohibiting Autonomous Weapons: Put Human Dignity First. Global Policy, 10(3), 370-375. 
  • Sauer, F. and Schörnig, N. (2012). Killer Drones: The ‘Silver Bullet’ of Democratic Warfare? Security Dialogue, 43(4), 363–80. 
  • Schwarz, E. (2021). Autonomous Weapons Systems, Artificial Intelligence, and the Problem of Meaningful Human Control. The Philosophical Journal of Conflict and Violence, 5(1), 53-72.
  • Sharkey, A. (2019). Autonomous weapons systems, killer robots and human dignity. Ethics and Information Technology, 21(2), 75–87. 
  • Verbruggen, M. (2019). The Role of Civilian Innovation in the Development of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems. Global Policy, 10(3), 338-342. 
  • Verdiesen, I., Santoni de Sio, F. & Dignum, V. (2021). Accountability and Control Over Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Framework for Comprehensive Human Oversight. Minds & Machines, 31, 137–163.  
  • Wyatt, A. (2020). Charting great power progress toward a lethal autonomous weapon system demonstration point, Defence Studies, 20 (1), 1-20. 
4. Country case studies
United States 

Domestic Policies and Laws: 

  • 2015: Made in China 2025 Plan (中国制造 2025) [Chinese version] 
  • 2015: The Guidance of the State Council on Actively Promoting the “Internet Plus” Action (关于积极推进“互联网+”行动的指导意见[Chinese version]
  • 2016: The 13th Five Year National Science and Technology and Innovation Plan (十三五国家科技创新规划 ) [Chinese version] 
  • 2016: Three-Year Action Implementation Plan for “Internet +” (“互联网 +”人工 智能三年行动实施方案[Chinese version]
  • 2016: Three-Year Action Implementation Plan for “Internet +” (“互联网 +”人工 智能三年行动实施方案[Chinese version] 
  • 2017: State Council’s Plan for the Development of New Generation Artificial Intelligence (国务院关于印发新一代人工智能发展规划的通知). [Chinese version]  
  • 2017: The Three-Year Action Plan to Promote the Development of New-Generation Artificial Intelligence Industry (2018-2020) (促进新一代人工智能产业发展三年行动计划(2018 —2020 )) [Chinese version] 
  • 2017: Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Promoting Closer Civil-Military Integration in the National Defence Science and Technology Industry (关于推动国防科技工业军民融合深度发展的意见[Chinese version] [English version] 
  • 2018: Action Plan for Artificial Intelligence Innovation in Universities (高等学校人工智能创新行动计划) [Chinese version]
  • 2018: The White Paper of Artificial Intelligence Standardization (人工智能安全标准化白皮书(2018版)[Chinese version] 
  • 2019: The White Paper of Artificial Intelligence Standardization (人工智能安全标准化白皮书(2019版)[Chinese version] 
  • 2019: The White Paper on “China’s National Defence in the New Era” (新时代的中国国防[Chinese version] [English Version]
  • 2019: 2019 Report on the Work of the Government (2019年政府工作报告) [Chinese version]
  • 2019: Next Generation AI Governance Principles — Developing Responsible AI (新一代人工智能治理原则——发展负责任的人工智能) [Chinese version]
  • 2019 人工智能伦理风险分析报告 Report of Ethical Risk Analysis of Artificial intelligence [Chinese version]
  • 2019 Guidelines for the Construction of the National New Generation AI Innovation and Development Pilot Zones国家新一代人工智能创新发展试验区建设工作指引 [Chinese version]
  • 2020 Proposal to Fully Leverage the Forces of AI to Jointly Fight COVID19 Pandamic工信部《充分发挥人工智能赋能效用 协力抗击新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情倡议书》[Chinese version]
  • 2020 Measures to support the resumption of work and production and the smooth operation of the economy via scientific and technological innovation科技部《关于科技创新支撑复工复产和经济平稳运行的若干措施》 [Chinese version]
  • 2020 Suggestions on promoting the integration of disciplines and accelerating the cultivation of postgraduates in the field of AI关于双一流建设高校促进学科融合 加快人工智能领域研究生培养的若干意见 [Chinese version]
  • 2020 The Legislative Work Plan of the NPC Standing Committee for 2020全国人大常委会2020年度立法工作计划 [Chinese version]
  • 2020 Guidelines for the Construction of the National New Generation AI Innovation and Development Pilot Zones (revised edition) 国家新一代人工智能创新发展试验区建设工作指引(修订版)[Chinese version]

Articles and Reports: 

  • Akimoto, D. (2019). International Regulation of “Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems” (LAWS): Paradigms of Policy Debate in Japan. Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 7(2), 311-33.