Resources on Weaponised AI
The following list compiles internal and external resources on the broad topic of weaponised AI. This list covers both the international debate on lethal autonomous weapons systems at the CCW as well as policy reports and journal articles.
On this page you will find resources on the following topics:
1. International debate about LAWS at the CCW
- Documents from the 2021 CCW Group of Governmental Experts on emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS) (Sessions in August, September, and December 2021)
- “Contributions on possible consensus recommendations in relation to the clarification, consideration and development of aspects of the normative and operational framework” (June 2021)
- Chairperson’s Summary of the GGE on LAWS’ Work (April 2021)
- Documents from the Sixth CCW Review Conference (December 2021)
- Documents from the 2019 CCW Group of Governmental Experts on LAWS
- Documents from the 2019 Meeting of CCW High Contracting Parties
- Guiding Principles affirmed by the GGE on Emerging Technologies in the Area of LAWS (Annex III)
- Documents from the 2018 CCW Group of Governmental Experts on lethal autonomous weapon systems
- Documents from the 2018 Meeting of CCW High Contracting Parties
- Documents from the 2016 CCW meeting of experts on autonomous weapons
- Documents from the Fifth CCW Review Conference
- CCW 2015 Meeting of Experts on autonomous weapons
- Working papers and other documents submitted to the 2015 CCW Meeting of Experts on autonomous weapon systems
Think Tanks and Research Institutes
- Maggie Gray and Amy Ertan. (2021). Artificial Intelligence and Autonomy in the Military: An Overview of NATO Member States’ Strategies and Deployment. The NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.
- Michael Horowitz and Paul Scharre. (2021). AI and International Stability: Risks and Confidence-Building Measures. Center for a New American Security.
- Vincent Boulanin, Netta Goussac and Laura Bruun. (2021). Autonomous Weapon Systems and International Humanitarian Law: Identifying Limits and the Required Type and Degree of Human–Machine Interaction. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
- Dustin Lewis. (2020). Three pathways to secure greater respect for international law concerning war algorithms. Harvard Law School Program on International Law and Armed Conflict.
- Vincent Boulanin, Neil Davison, Netta Goussac and Moa Peldán Carlsson. (2020). Limits of Autonomy in Weapon Systems: Identifying Practical Elements of Human Control. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and International Committee of the Red Cross.
- Forrest E. Morgan, Benjamin Boudreaux, Andrew L. John, Mark Ashby, Christian Curriden, Kelly Klima, and Derek Grossman. (2020). Military Applications of Artificial Intelligence: Ethical Concerns in an Uncertain World. The RAND Corporation.
- Anja Dahlmann and Marcel Dickow. (2019). Preventive Regulation of Autonomous Weapon Systems: Need for Action by Germany at Various Levels. SWP Research Paper 2019/RP 03.
- Michael C. Horowitz, Gregory C. Allen, Elsa B. Kania, and Paul Scharre. (2018). Strategic Competition in an Era of Artificial Intelligence. Center for a New American Security.
- Regina Surber. (2018). Artificial Intelligence: Autonomous Technology (AT), Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) and Peace Time Threats. ICT for Peace Foundation, Zurich Hub for Ethics and Technology.
- Vincent Boulanin and Maaike Verbruggen. (2017). Mapping the Development of Autonomy in Weapon Systems. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
- Maya Brehm. (2017). Defending the Boundary: Constraints and Requirements on the Use of Autonomous Weapons Systems under International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law. Geneva Academy Briefing No. 9.
- Paul Scharre. (2016). Autonomous weapons and operational risk (Ethical Autonomy Project. 20YY Future of Warfare Initiative). Center for a New American Security.
- Kenneth Anderson and Matthew C. Waxman. (2013). Law and Ethics for Autonomous Weapon Systems: Why a Ban Won’t Work and How the Laws of War Can. Columbia Public Law Research Paper.
International Organisations and NGOs
- Peter Burt. (2021). None Too Clever? Military Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Drone Wars UK.
- International Committee of the Red Cross. (2021). ICRC position on autonomous weapon systems.
- Arthur Holland Michel. (2021). Known Unknowns: Data Issues and Military Autonomous Systems. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research.
- International Panel on the Regulation of Autonomous Weapons (iPRAW). (2021). Focus on National Regulations on LAWS and Military AI.
- Human Rights Watch. (2020). Stopping Killer Robots: Country Positions on Banning Fully Autonomous Weapons and Retaining Human Control.
- Frank Slijper, Alice Beck and Daan Kayser. (2019). State of AI: Artificial intelligence, the military and increasingly autonomous weapons. PAX for Peace.
- Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. (2019). Key elements of a treaty on fully autonomous weapons.
- International Panel on the Regulation of Autonomous Weapons (iPRAW). (2018). Focus on Ethical Implications for a Regulation of LAWS.
- United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA). (2017). Perspectives on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems. Occasional Paper No. 30.
- Daan Kayser and Stepan Denk. (2017). Keeping Control: European positions on lethal autonomous weapon systems. PAX for Peace.
- Article 36. (2016). Key elements of meaningful human control. Background Paper April 2016.
- Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. (2015a). Report on Activities – Convention on Conventional Weapons second informal meeting of experts on lethal autonomous weapons systems – United Nations Geneva 13-17 April 2015.
- Campaign to Stop Killer Robots. (2015b). Report on Activities Convention on Conventional Weapons Annual Meeting of High Contracting Parties United Nations Geneva 12-13 November 2015.
3. Journal articles
- Altmann, J. and Sauer, F. (2017). Autonomous Weapon Systems and Strategic Stability. Survival 59(5), 117-142.
- Amoroso, D., Tamburrini, G . (2020). Autonomous Weapons Systems and Meaningful Human Control: Ethical and Legal Issues. Current Robotics Report 1, 187–194.
- Amoroso, D. and Tamburrini, G. (2021). In Search of the ‘Human Element’: International Debates on Regulating Autonomous Weapons Systems. The International Spectator 56(1), 20-38.
- Asaro, P. (2019). Algorithms of violence: Critical social perspectives on autonomous weapons. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 86(2), 537–555.
- Crootof, R. (2015). The Killer Robots Are Here: Legal and Policy Implications. Cardozo Law Review, 36(5), 1837-1916.
- Ekelhof, M. (2017). Complications of a Common Language: Why it is so Hard to Talk about Autonomous Weapons. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 22(2), 311-331.
- Ekelhof, M. (2019). Moving Beyond Semantics on Autonomous Weapons: Meaningful Human Control in Operation. Global Policy, 10(3), 343–348.
- Garcia, D. (2018). Lethal Artificial Intelligence and Change: The Future of International Peace and Security. International Studies Review, 20, 334–41.
- Gill, A. (2019). Artificial Intelligence and International Security: The Long View. Ethics & International Affairs, 33(2), 169-179.
- Haas, M.C. and Fischer, S.C. (2017). The evolution of targeted killing practices: Autonomous weapons, future conflict, and the international order. Contemporary Security Policy, 38(2), 281-306.
- Haner, J. and Garcia, D. (2019). The Artificial Intelligence Arms Race: Trends and World Leaders in Autonomous Weapons Development. Global Policy, 10(3), 331-337.
- Heyns, C. (2016). Human Rights and the use of Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS) During Domestic Law Enforcement. Human Rights Quarterly, 38(2), 350-378.
- Horowitz, M. C. (2016). Why words matter: The real world consequences of defining autonomous weapons systems. Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, 30(1), 85–98.
- Horowitz, M.C. (2019). When speed kills: Lethal autonomous weapon systems, deterrence and stability. Journal of Strategic Studies, 42(6), 764-788.
- Leys, N. (2018). Autonomous Weapon Systems and International Crises. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 12(1), 48-73.
- Maas, M. (2019). How viable is international arms control for military artificial intelligence? Three lessons from nuclear weapons. Contemporary Security Policy, 40(3), 285-311.
- Payne, K. (2018). Artificial intelligence: A revolution in strategic affairs? Survival, 60 (5), 7–32.
- Petersson, M. (2021). Small states and autonomous systems – the Scandinavian case. Journal of Strategic Studies, 44(4), 594-612.
- Roff, H.M. (2014). The strategic robot problem: Lethal autonomous weapons in war. Journal of Military Ethics, 13, 211–227.
- Rosendorf, O. (2021). Predictors of support for a ban on killer robots: Preventive arms control as an anticipatory response to military innovation. Contemporary Security Policy, 42(1), 30-52.
- Rosert, E. and Sauer, F. (2021). How (not) to stop the killer robots: A comparative analysis of humanitarian disarmament campaign strategies. Contemporary Security Policy, (42:1), 4-29.
- Rosert, E. and Sauer, F. (2019). Prohibiting Autonomous Weapons: Put Human Dignity First. Global Policy, 10(3), 370-375.
- Sauer, F. and Schörnig, N. (2012). Killer Drones: The ‘Silver Bullet’ of Democratic Warfare? Security Dialogue, 43(4), 363–80.
- Schwarz, E. (2021). Autonomous Weapons Systems, Artificial Intelligence, and the Problem of Meaningful Human Control. The Philosophical Journal of Conflict and Violence, 5(1), 53-72.
- Sharkey, A. (2019). Autonomous weapons systems, killer robots and human dignity. Ethics and Information Technology, 21(2), 75–87.
- Verbruggen, M. (2019). The Role of Civilian Innovation in the Development of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems. Global Policy, 10(3), 338-342.
- Verdiesen, I., Santoni de Sio, F. & Dignum, V. (2021). Accountability and Control Over Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Framework for Comprehensive Human Oversight. Minds & Machines, 31, 137–163.
- Wyatt, A. (2020). Charting great power progress toward a lethal autonomous weapon system demonstration point, Defence Studies, 20 (1), 1-20.
4. Country case studies
- Congressional Research Service. (2020). Artificial Intelligence and National Security.
- Congressional Research Service. (2018). U.S. Ground Forces Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI): Considerations for Congress.
- Margarita Konaev, Husanjot Chahal, Ryan Fedasiuk, Tina Huang, and Ilya Rahkovsky. (2020). U.S. Military Investments in Autonomy and AI: A Budgetary Assessment. Center for Security and Emerging Technology.
- The National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence (NSCAI). (2021). Final Report.
- Bradley Martin, Danielle C. Tarraf, Thomas C. Whitmore, Jacob DeWeese, Cedric Kenney, Jon Schmid, Paul DeLuca. (2019). Advancing Autonomous Systems: An Analysis of Current and Future Technology for Unmanned Maritime Vehicles. The RAND Corporation.
Domestic Policies and Laws:
- 2015: Made in China 2025 Plan (中国制造 2025) [Chinese version]
- 2015: The Guidance of the State Council on Actively Promoting the “Internet Plus” Action (关于积极推进“互联网+”行动的指导意见) [Chinese version]
- 2016: The 13th Five Year National Science and Technology and Innovation Plan (十三五”国家科技创新规划 ) [Chinese version]
- 2016: Three-Year Action Implementation Plan for “Internet +” (“互联网 +”人工 智能三年行动实施方案) [Chinese version]
- 2016: Three-Year Action Implementation Plan for “Internet +” (“互联网 +”人工 智能三年行动实施方案) [Chinese version]
- 2017: State Council’s Plan for the Development of New Generation Artificial Intelligence (国务院关于印发新一代人工智能发展规划的通知). [Chinese version]
- 2017: The Three-Year Action Plan to Promote the Development of New-Generation Artificial Intelligence Industry (2018-2020) (促进新一代人工智能产业发展三年行动计划(2018 —2020 年)) [Chinese version]
- 2017: Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Promoting Closer Civil-Military Integration in the National Defence Science and Technology Industry (关于推动国防科技工业军民融合深度发展的意见) [Chinese version] [English version]
- 2018: Action Plan for Artificial Intelligence Innovation in Universities (高等学校人工智能创新行动计划) [Chinese version]
- 2018: The White Paper of Artificial Intelligence Standardization (人工智能安全标准化白皮书（2018版）) [Chinese version]
- 2019: The White Paper of Artificial Intelligence Standardization (人工智能安全标准化白皮书（2019版）) [Chinese version]
- 2019: The White Paper on “China’s National Defence in the New Era” (新时代的中国国防) [Chinese version] [English Version]
- 2019: 2019 Report on the Work of the Government (2019年政府工作报告) [Chinese version]
- 2019: Next Generation AI Governance Principles — Developing Responsible AI (新一代人工智能治理原则——发展负责任的人工智能) [Chinese version]
- 2019 人工智能伦理风险分析报告 Report of Ethical Risk Analysis of Artificial intelligence [Chinese version]
- 2019 Guidelines for the Construction of the National New Generation AI Innovation and Development Pilot Zones国家新一代人工智能创新发展试验区建设工作指引 [Chinese version]
- 2020 Proposal to Fully Leverage the Forces of AI to Jointly Fight COVID19 Pandamic工信部《充分发挥人工智能赋能效用 协力抗击新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情倡议书》[Chinese version]
- 2020 Measures to support the resumption of work and production and the smooth operation of the economy via scientific and technological innovation科技部《关于科技创新支撑复工复产和经济平稳运行的若干措施》 [Chinese version]
- 2020 Suggestions on promoting the integration of disciplines and accelerating the cultivation of postgraduates in the field of AI关于双一流建设高校促进学科融合 加快人工智能领域研究生培养的若干意见 [Chinese version]
- 2020 The Legislative Work Plan of the NPC Standing Committee for 2020全国人大常委会2020年度立法工作计划 [Chinese version]
- 2020 Guidelines for the Construction of the National New Generation AI Innovation and Development Pilot Zones (revised edition) 国家新一代人工智能创新发展试验区建设工作指引（修订版）[Chinese version]
Articles and Reports:
- Ryan Fedasiuk, Jennifer Melot and Ben Murphy. (2021). Harnessed Lighting: How the Chinese Military is Adopting Artificial Intelligence. Center for Security and Emerging Technology.
- Kania, E.B. (2021). Artificial intelligence in China’s revolution in military affairs. Journal of Strategic Studies, 44(4), 515-542.
- Kania, E.B. (2017). Battlefield singularity: Artificial intelligence, military revolution, and China’s future military power. Center for a New American Security.
- Akimoto, D. (2019). International Regulation of “Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems” (LAWS): Paradigms of Policy Debate in Japan. Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 7(2), 311-33.
- Petrella, S., Miller, C. and Cooper, B. (2021). Russia’s Artificial Intelligence Strategy: The Role of State-Owned Firms. Orbis, 65(1), 75-100.
- Samuel Bendett et al. (2021). Advanced Military Technology in Russia. Chatham House.
- Jeffrey Edmonds et al. (2021). Artificial Intelligence and Autonomy in Russia. CNA.
- Zysk, K. (2020). Defence innovation and the 4th industrial revolution in Russia. Journal of Strategic Studies, 44(4), 1-29.
- Vadim Kozyulin. (2019). Militarization of AI: A Russian Perspective. The Stanley Center for Peace and Security Discussion Paper.
- Samuel Bendett, Stephen Blank, Joe Chervatich, Michael B. Petersen and Andreas Turunen. (2020). Improvisation and Adaptability in the Russian Military. Center for Strategic and International Studies.
- Sten Allik, Sean Fahey, Tomas Jermalavičius, Roger McDermott, Konrad Myzyka. (2021). The Rise of Russia’s Military Robots: Theory, Practice and Implications. International Centre for Defence and Security.
- Timothy Thomas. (2021). Russian Robotics: A Look at Definitions, Principles, Uses and Other Trends. The MITRE Corporation.
- Harvard Law School Program on International Law and Armed Conflict. (2020). A Compilation of Materials Apparently Reflective of States’ Views on International Legal Issues Pertaining to the Use of Algorithmic and Data-Reliant Socio-Technical Systems in Armed Conflict.
- The LAWS & War Crimes Project, the Graduate Institute Geneva. (2019). Bibliography of Resources Relating to Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems.