Upcoming events

ISA annual convention

3-6 April 2024

Ingvild Bode and Anna Nadibaidze will present their research at the 2024 International Studies Association annual convention in San Francisco.

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Past events

Loitering munitions report online launch event

8 December 2023

AutoNorms organised the virtual launch of the report “Loitering Munitions and Unpredictability: Autonomy in Weapon Systems and Challenges to Human Control”, published earlier this year

Co-authored by Ingvild Bode and Tom F.A. Watts, this report examines whether the use of automated, autonomous, and artificial intelligence technologies as part of the global development, testing, and fielding of loitering munitions since the 1980s has impacted emerging practices and social norms of human control over the use of force. The report’s central argument is that whilst most existing loitering munitions are operated by a human who authorizes strikes against system-designated targets, the integration of automated and autonomous technologies into these weapons has created worrying precedents deserving of greater public scrutiny.

The report’s findings were discussed by Laura Bruun, Researcher in Governance of Artificial Intelligence Programme at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, followed by Q&A with the audience.

AI Governance Forum

1 December 2023

At the virtual AI Governance Forum 2023, organised by the AI Transparency Institute, Anna Nadibaidze spoke about the topic “Regulating Military AI: Mission Impossible?”. She discussed some of the challenges in global governance of military AI and recent developments in that area.

Digital Tech Summit

8 November 2023

Ingvild Bode delivered the keynote speech “How Does AI Change Warfare?” at the 3rd Annual Digital Tech Summit in Copenhagen, Denmark. Find more information about the summit here.

Conference on International Cyber Security

7 November 2023

Ingvild Bode was a keynote speaker at the 2023 Conference on International Cyber Security organised by the Hague Program on International Cyber Security. Her speech was entitled “How Practices Make Norms: Autonomous and AI Technologies in Weapon Systems”.

Oslo Nuclear Forum

27 October 2023

Anna Nadibaidze presented her research on Russia’s place in the AI competition and its implications for strategic stability at the Oslo Nuclear Forum, organised by the Oslo Nuclear Project (University of Oslo). The 2023 Forum was entitled “Strategic Stability, Extended Deterrence, Emerging Technology and the War in Ukraine”. 

EU Cyber Diplomacy Initiative roundtable

27 October 2023

Ingvild Bode participated in the EU Cyber Direct’s third New Tech Roundtable roundtable, entitled “Navigating the International and European Governance of Military AI: From Confidence-Building Measures to Risk-Based Guardrails”. Part of a series that aims at advancing research on the EU’s cooperation with relevant partners on new and emerging technologies, this instalment brought together 29 scholars, experts, and policymakers. Ingvild Bode’s remarks focused on potential pathways for confidence-building measures for AI. 

Czech Security Forum

25-26 October 2023

Anna Nadibaidze took part in the Czech Security Forum in Prague. The theme of the 2023 forum was “A.I. Revolution, Nuclear Weapons, and the Future of European Security after the War in Ukraine.” Anna Nadibaidze spoke about the impacts of military applications of AI and the potential for regulating these technologies together with Andrea Gilli (Senior Researcher, NATO Defense College), Elke Schwarz (Associate Professor, Queen Mary University of London), and Asya Metodieva (Researcher, Institute of International Relations Prague).

Workshop on arms control and emerging technologies in Hamburg

19 October 2023

Anna Nadibaidze participated in a workshop organised by the Working Group on Arms Control and Emerging Technologies, hosted by the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy (IFSH) at the University of Hamburg and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). She presented her draft paper “Russia’s Place in the Global AI Competition: Perceptions and Implications for Strategic Stability”.

DILEMA 2023 conference

12-13 October 2023

Ingvild Bode and Guangyu Qiao-Franco participated in the annual DILEMA Project conference held in The Hague. The DILEMA conference brought together scholars and experts to discuss research insights surrounding military AI from the fields of law, ethics, computer science, and other disciplines. Ingvild Bode presented the draft paper “Visuals as Sources of Normativity in the Debate about Artificial Intelligence in the Military Domain”, co-authored with Guangyu Qiao-Franco and Anna Nadibaidze. 


5-9 September 2023

The AutoNorms team took part in the 16th Pan-European Conference on International Relations of the European International Studies Association (EISA) in Potsdam, Germany.

Ingvild Bode presented her research on “Emerging technologies: What counts as expertise in United Nations arms control forums?” and “Narrating the US-China ‘Tech War'” (co-authored with Cecilia Ducci and Pak Lee). She also acted as discussant for the panel “The Practice Turn in IR and its Critics I” and chaired a panel on Norm Contestation.

Hendrik Huelss presented his article “Machines of Truth: Military AI and the Problem of Human Control” and participated in the roundtable “Contestation in Prism. Patterns of norm evolution, consolidation, and decay”.

Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented her research on “The Promise of Track-Two Diplomacy Amidst US-China Tech War” (co-authored with Sun Chenghao) and discussed the papers of the panel “Practices of security, technology, and warfare”.

Anna Nadibaidze presented two draft articles: “Performing Military AI Capabilities: A Visual Practice Analysis” and “Understanding International Practices via Visual Analysis”. She also took part in the EISA Early Career Workshop “Reshaping Perceptions: Human-Nonhuman Systems in Security Contexts”.

Tom Watts presented his research on “Technological Change and World Politics: Is Great Power Competition Changing American Practices of Loitering Munition Development?” and acted as discussant for the panel “Illiberal Threats to the Liberal International Order”.

Workshop on expertise in the debate over emerging weapons technologies

31 August 2023

Ingvild Bode and Anna Nadibaidze presented their ongoing research at the workshop “Politics, Ethics, and Expertise in the Debate over Emerging Weapons Technologies”, organised by the Mapping LAWS project at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Ingvild’s presentation touched upon “Emerging technologies: what counts as expertise in United Nations arms control forums?”, while Anna presented about “Expertise in Understanding Responsible Military AI: The Role of the REAIM Conference”.

AEGES convention

7-9 June 2023

At the 6th convention of the Association pour les études sur la guerre et la stratégie (AEGES) in Bordeaux, France, Anna Nadibaidze presented the draft article “Cross-Cultural Narratives and Imaginations of Weaponised Artificial Intelligence: Comparing France, India, Japan, and the United States”, co-authored with Ingvild Bode, Hendrik Huelss, and Tom Watts.

Odense Kulturfestival

26 May 2023

Anna Nadibaidze delivered a lecture on “Artificial Intelligence in Warfare” as part of the Science and Beers popular science talk series. The talk was held at the Odense Kulturfestival, in Odense, Denmark. 

The presentation explored some of the main trends surrounding AI in security and defence, with a focus on the development, testing, and use of weapon systems with autonomous features. It also covered debates about legal, ethical, and security implications of autonomous weapons, and the potential for global regulation of these technologies.

Making Sense of the US-China Tech War

23 May 2023

AutoNorms and the Center for War Studies hosted the workshop “Making Sense of the US-China Tech War” at the University of Southern Denmark. The workshop brought together a group of scholars from different institutions across Europe to discuss the US-China technological competition. It was held in preparation for a special issue on the US-China Tech War.

Reimagining peace conference

8-9 May 2023

Anna Nadibaidze participated in the conference “Reimagining peace: New agendas for research & policy in times of conflict”, which took place at the Flemish Parliament in Brussels. She was a speaker on the arms proliferation and disarmament panel, where she shared some remarks on the development and potential regulation of autonomous weapon systems. The conference was organised by the Flemish Peace Institute in cooperation with Tampere Peace Research Institute, Post-Conflict Research Center Sarajevo, Peace Research Center Prague and Peace Research Institute Oslo.

Many Worlds of AI

25-28 April 2023

Anna Nadibaidze and Guangyu Qiao-Franco took part in the conference “Many Worlds of AI: Intercultural Approaches to the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence” held at the University of Cambridge, UK. The conference’s aim was to interrogate how an intercultural approach to ethics can inform the processes of conceiving, designing, and regulating AI.

Anna Nadibaidze presented AutoNorms’  research on cross-cultural narratives of weaponised AI, co-authored with Ingvild Bode, Hendrik Huelss, and Tom Watts.

Guangyu Qiao-Franco’s presentation, “A community-of-practice approach to understanding Chinese policymaking on AI ethics”, was based on her article “China’s Artificial Intelligence Ethics: Policy Development in an Emergent Community of Practice”, co-authored with Rongsheng Zhu.

Luxembourg Autonomous Weapons Systems Conference

25-26 April 2023

Ingvild Bode spoke at the Luxembourg AWS 2023 Conference (LAWS 2023), hosted by the Luxembourg Directorate of Defence. She discussed the regulation of AWS at the national and international levels together with Ioana Puscas (UNIDIR), Ousman Noor (CSKR), Neil Davison (ICRC), Andreas Bilgeri (Austria) and Mathijs Vermathen (Netherlands). Find a summary of Ingvild’s remarks here.

ISA annual convention

15-18 March 2023

Ingvild Bode, Hendrik Huelss and Anna Nadibaidze attended the International Studies Association (ISA) Annual Convention in Montreal, Canada. 

Ingvild Bode and Hendrik Huelss presented their article “Constructing Expertise: The Front- and Back-Door Regulation of AI’s Military Applications in Europe”

In addition, Ingvild Bode presented her research on “Emergent Normativity: Practices, Technology, and Loitering Munitions”. She also chaired the panel “Examining Algorithms in Security and Warfare” and acted as discussant on the panel “Norms and Other Norms: Exploring Norm Relations and Norm Interactions in a Complex Global Order”. 

Anna Nadibaidze presented her draft article entitled “Military AI Capabilities: Practices, Performances and Perceptions”. 

REAIM Summit 2023

15-16 February 2023

Realities of Algorithmic Warfare 

AutoNorms co-hosted a session at the REAIM World Summit in The Hague on 15 February 2023. REAIM stands for Responsible Use of AI in the Military domain. This summit was organised by the Government of the Netherlands and brought together academics, policymakers, military strategists, and corporations from across the world to discuss the opportunities and threats of integrating AI and machine learning into contemporary warfare.

Together with its partners from the Intimacies of Remote Warfare programme at Utrecht University, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, Antwerp University, the War Studies Research Centre of the Netherlands Defence Academy, and Leiden University, the AutoNorms team hosted the breaktout session “Realities of Algorithmic Warfare“. The session was split into three subpanels: use (with Ingvild Bode’s participation), impact, and regulation (with Anna Nadibaidze’s participation). 

Watch the session recording on the REAIM YouTube channel.

Policy and AI workshop

12-13 January 2023

Ingvild Bode participated in the workshop “Putting Policy and AI into Critical Dialogue“, held at the Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution. The event, co-hosted by ART-AI and the Department of Political Science at the University of Bergen, brought together 25 international scholars working on AI technologies and public policy. Bode presented AutoNorms’ research on AI geopolitics in international relations, co-authored with Guangyu Qiao-Franco. This research is due to be published in the Handbook on Public Policy and AI, edited by Regine Paul, Emma Carmel, and Jennifer Cobbe.

Conference at Forsvarsakademiet

12 January 2023

Anna Nadibaidze presented her research on Russia’s prospects in technological sovereignty and AI development at the conference “Perspectives on Russia: Present and Future Challenges and Opportunities”, organised by the Royal Danish Defence College in Copenhagen.

Participation in podcast

5 January 2023

Ingvild Bode spoke with Nikolaus Forgó as part of the Ars Boni podcast, organised by the Department of Innovation and Digitalisation in Law at the University of Vienna’s Law School. The podcast episode, entitled “Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Weapons in War”, is available to watch and to listen


11 December 2022

Ingvild Bode was a guest on the podcast “On AiR: IR in the Age of AI”, hosted by Medlir Mema and Christopher Lamont. The discussion touched upon autonomy in weapon systems, loitering munitions, as well as regulation of autonomous weapons. The episode is available here.

Conference on AI international cooperation

9-10 December 2022

Guangyu Qiao-Franco spoke at the AI and Regional Security in Asia thematic session of the Third International Artificial Intelligence Cooperation and Governance Forum, hosted by Tsinghua University and organised by the Institute for AI International Governance of Tsinghua University.

Conference on autonomy in the digital age

20-22 November 2022

Ingvild Bode presented her article “Negotiating Normativity: Practices, Technology, and Loitering Munitions” at the conference Autonomy in the Digital Age: Rethinking Relationships between Humans, Technology and Society, held at the University of Bonn, Germany, and online.

Roundtable in French

11 November 2022

Anna Nadibaidze took part in the roundtable « Drones et nouvelles technologies militaires : quels enseignements tirés de la guerre russo-ukrainienne ? » (Drones and New Military Technologies: What Lessons Learned from the Russo-Ukrainian War?”). The roundtable was organised by the Réseau d’analyse stratégique (RAS) and Le Rubicon. Other speakers included Dr. Ulrike Franke, Dr. Dominika Kunertova and Colonel David Pappalardo. The debate was moderated by Dr. Chantal Lavallée. Watch the recording here.

Expert workshop

8 November 2022

Ingvild Bode was invited to speak at the expert workshop “AI and Related Technologies in Military Decision-Making on the Use of Force” organised by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) & Geneva Academy Joint Initiative on the Digitalization of Armed Conflict. Read her remarks here.

DPSA conference

27-28 October 2022

At the Danish Political Science Association Annual Meeting, held in Nyborg, Denmark, Ingvild Bode presented her article “Visuals as Sources of Norms: Emergent Normativity in the Debate about Weaponised Artificial Intelligence”. 

Guest speaker: Denise Garcia

7-10 October 2022

The AutoNorms team hosted Professor Denise Garcia from Northeastern University, Boston, at the Center for War Studies, SDU. Professor Garcia conducted a masterclass about research dissemination and policy implications at SDU’s Department of Political Science. She also delivered the CWS annual lecture, entitled “Common Good Governance in the Age of Military Artificial Intelligence”. 

Denise Garcia, a Ph.D. from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies of the University of Geneva, is a professor at Northeastern University in Boston and a founding faculty member of the Institute for Experiential Robotics. She is formerly a member of the International Panel for the Regulation of Autonomous Weapons (2017-2022), currently of the Research Board of the Toda Peace Institute (Tokyo) and the Institute for Economics and Peace (Sydney), Vice-chair of the International Committee for Robot Arms Control, and of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Global Initiative on Ethics of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems.  She was the Nobel Peace Institute Fellow in Oslo in 2017. A multiple teaching award-winner, her recent publications appeared in Nature, Foreign Affairs, and other top journals.

Future of War conference

5-7 October 2022

At the Future of War Conference held in Amsterdam, Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented her paper “Insurmountable Enemies or Easy Targets? Military-Themed Videogame ‘Translations’ of Weaponized Artificial Intelligence”, co-authored with Paolo Franco. The Future of War Conference is a joint initiative of the War Studies Research Centre (WSRC) of the Netherlands Defence Academy (NLDA) and the University of Oxford’s Changing Character of War (CCW) Centre. 

APSA conference

15-18 September 2022

Anna Nadibaidze participated at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting in Montreal, Canada, presenting her paper “Technology in the Quest for Status: The Russian Leadership’s Artificial Intelligence Narrative”.

EISA conference

1-4 September 2022

Ingvild Bode and Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented their research at the European International Studies Association (EISA) 15th Pan-European Conference on International Relations in Athens, Greece. Ingvild Bode presented her paper “Silently Negotiating Normativity: Practice, Technology, and Loitering Munitions”. Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented her paper “Theorising the Role of Crisis in International Practice Theory: An Analysis of Crisis Management in Chinese Arms Control Diplomacy”.

Participant observation at the UN GGE on LAWS

25-29 July 2022

Ingvild Bode, Hendrik Huelss and Guangyu Qiao-Franco observed the second session of the GGE on LAWS debate in Geneva. Ingvild Bode delivered a verbal statement on behalf of AutoNorms, which is available here.

ASAA conference

5-8 July 2022

At the “24th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia 2022”, Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented her paper on Chinese AI ethics, leveraging the theoretical lens of communities of practice (CoP). In this paper she focuses on the reconfiguration of AI policymaking CoP over time, which features varied roles for the government, academia, and the private sector.

EISS conference

30 June – 1 July 2022

Anna Nadibaidze presented her article “Technology in the Quest for Status: The Russian Leadership’s Artificial Intelligence Narratives” at the 5th Annual Conference of the European Initiative for Security Studies (EISS) held in Berlin, Germany. 

Politicologenetmaal conference

16-17 June 2022

Guangyu Qiao-Franco took part in the 2022 edition of the Politicologenetmaal (Annual Political Science Workshops of the Low Countries) held at Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. She presented the article “AI Geopolitics and International Relations: A Divided World Behind the Contested Conceptions of Human Control”, co-authored with Ingvild Bode. 

BISA conference

15-17 June 2022

Ingvild Bode, Hendrik Huelss, and Anna Nadibaidze participated in the British International Studies Association (BISA) 2022 conference in Newcastle, the UK. To learn more about their presentations and contributions, see the conference programme here.

The Algorithmic Turn in Security and Warfare workshop

30 May 2022

On 30 May 2022, the AutoNorms project team organised the “Algorithmic Turn in Security and Warfare” workshop at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense.

The workshop brough together a community of scholars from a range of different institutions and disciplines. The aim was to discuss some of the major implications of weaponised artificial intelligence (AI) for international relations and warfare.

Topics discussed included: socio-technical imaginaries of human control in autonomous weapons systems, the implications of algorithmically supported decision-making for international humanitarian law, innovation and experimentation in the Dutch armed forces, gendered approaches to studying weaponised AI, as well as the representations of AI in popular culture franchises such as The Terminator.

The workshop marked an important step in the preparations for a interdisciplinary special issue on the topic of algorithms in security and warfare which will be published with the journal Global Society in early 2024.

We thank all participants for their insightful contributions, thought-provoking papers, and engagement.

The AutoNorms team is also grateful to the Carlsberg Foundation, the European Research Council, and the Center for War Studies at SDU for their kind support with the organisation of this workshop.

BISA ISET conference

20-21 May 2022

Tom Watts and Anna Nadibaidze attended the conference of the BISA “International Studies and Emerging Technologies Working Group 2022” held at the Clinton Institute, University College Dublin, Ireland.

Tom Watts presented his paper “‘The Future is Not Set: The Terminator, AI Narratives, and US Military Discourse on Autonomous Weapons Systems,” co-authored with Ingvild Bode. 

Guangyu Qiao-Franco’s paper “Insurmountable Enemies or Easy Targets? Military-Themed Videogame ‘Translations’ of Weaponized Artificial Intelligence” was presented by her co-author, Paolo Franco. The article explores how popular culture in the context of videogames portray AI weaponisation in a paradoxical way that both hypes up and undermines its threats.

Anna Nadibaidze presented her ongoing research on “Technology as Status Anchor: How Russia Perceives Artificial Intelligence”.

Invited presentation on autonomous warfare

12 May 2022

Ingvild Bode was invited to deliver an online lecture on “Autonomous Warfare” at the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). The presentation offered an overview of the development towards autonomous weapons systems (AWS) and explained why it matters to put this in the context of a longer-term trajectory of developing weapons systems with automated and autonomous features. Further, the presentation critically investigated the challenges posed by weaponising artificial intelligence (AI), in particular in relation to the extent that humans can remain in control of using force. 

Visit from Amnesty International Secretary General

11 May 2022

During Amnesty International Secretary General Agnes Callamard’s visit to the University of Southern Denmark, Ingvild Bode presented AutoNorms’ research on weaponised artificial intelligence and autonomy in existing systems such air defence systems and loitering munitions. 

Science Festival

25-26 April 2022

Anna Nadibaidze took part in the Book a Scientist programme as part of the Science Festival organised by the Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, with the lecture “Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Warfare”.

Invited presentation

22 April 2022

Anna Nadibaidze spoke about Russian perspectives on military AI at the 21st Annual McCain Conference “The Ethics of Military Artificial Intelligence”. The conference was organised by the Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership at the US Naval Academy. 

ISA conference

28 March – 2 April 2022

Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented her analysis of norm building activities of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) in the field of international information security at the International Studies Association (ISA) Annual Convention 2022 (online). Her research builds on ‘communities of practice’ theories, analysing the strategies of SCO member states, such as China and Russia, in expanding the information security community through narrowing the conception of ‘others’.


10-11 March 2022

Guangyu Qiao-Franco participated in the conference “Law and Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in The Public Sector: From Principles to Practice and Policy” organised by the Asser Institute in The Hague, Netherlands. Her presentation addressed Chinese approaches to the ethical governance of AI. She outlined the evolution of Chinese policies on AI and examined the decision-making processes that drive the shift in China’s understandings of the ethical risks of AI.   

AI and the Transformation of Warfare

3-4 March 2022

Guangyu Qiao-Franco and Anna Nadibaidze took part in the workshop “AI and the Transformation of Warfare: Perspectives from South Asia and Beyond“, organised by the Warring with Machines project at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) and PRIO Global Fellow Kaushik Roy of Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. 

Guangyu Qiao-Franco introduced her take on China’s policies on lethal autonomous weapons systems and their implications for global governance in this area. Anna Nadibaidze spoke about Russian perspectives of AI and the transformation of warfare.

Online conference

12 February 2022

Anna Nadibaidze took part in the British Student & Young Pugwash (SYP) Technology & Peace Conference. Her presentation touched upon the global debate on lethal autonomous weapons systems. Watch the recording here.


9 February 2022

In a conversation with Aaron Stein on the Chain Reaction podcast, Anna Nadibaidze spoke about her report on Russian perceptions of military AI, automation, and autonomy. The report was published by the Foreign Policy Research Institute. 

Listen to the podcast episode here

The Algorithmic Turn in Security and Warfare

6-7 January 2022

On 6-7 January, AutoNorms and the Center for War Studies (CWS), with financial support from the Carlsberg Foundation, held the virtual conference “The Algorithmic Turn in Security and Warfare”. The conference brought together participants from different disciplines and institutions to discuss the issue of an ‘algorithmic turn’ in a variety of different security settings, including surveillance, predictive policing, drones, autonomous weapon systems (AWS), as well as policy debates surrounding these developments at the national, regional and international levels. Some of the papers presented at the conference will be published in a special issue (forthcoming).

Find a summary of the conference here.

The keynote lecture, “The Hacker Way: Moral Decision Logics with Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems” was delivered by Dr. Elke Schwarz and is available on the CWS YouTube channel.

Competition result

8 December 2021

Anna Nadibaidze was announced as one of the winners of the 2021 OSCE- IFSH Essay Competition on Conventional Arms Control and Confidence- and Security- Building Measures in Europe. She presented her essay, “Commitment to Control Weaponised Artificial Intelligence: A Step Forward for the OSCE and European Security”, at a meeting of the OSCE Forum for Security Co-operation. Read more about the competition results here.


25 November 2021

Ingvild Bode participated in an online panel discussion on the technical, ethical and political challenges posed by drone warfare and lethal autonomous weapon systems. The webinar was organised by British Pugwash and Student/Young Pugwash (SYP) UK’s Project on Ethical Science. Watch the recording here.


10 November 2021

Ingvild Bode was interviewed by Paola Gaeta and Marta Bo from the LAWS & War Crimes Project in episode 8 of the project’s podcast. The episode is entitled “Can humans exercise meaningful control over lethal autonomous weapons?” and is available here.

Online lecture

8 November 2021

Ingvild Bode delivered a DILEMA lecture on the topic of “Which Practices Shape Norms? Retaining Human Control over the Use of Force”. The discussion was moderated by Klaudia Klonowska, PhD researcher at DILEMA. To watch a recording of the lecture, see the Asser Institute YouTube channel.

DPSA conference

28-29 October 2021

Ingvild Bode and Anna Nadibaidze participated in the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Danish Political Science Association (DPSA). Ingvild Bode presented her paper “Silently Negotiating Normativity: Community of Practice, Technology, and Loitering Munitions” and chaired the panel on “New Research in International Relations”. Anna Nadibaidze presented her draft article “Mapping the Russian Position in the Global Debate about Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems”.

Online conference

19 October 2021

Ingvild Bode presented her research at the “Critical Borders: Radical (Re)visions of AI” conference, jointly organised by the Centre for Gender Studies and the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence at the University of Cambridge. Her paper entitled “Beyond the Terminator: How imaginaries draw boundaries in the debate about weaponised Artificial Intelligence” was part of the” AI Fact and Fiction” panel. Watch the recording here (starting at 4:39:55).


13 October 2021

Ingvild Bode participated in a webinar organised by the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation (VCDNP) as part of their Deterrence and Emerging Technologies (DET) webinar series. The panel covered the theme “Situational Awareness, Command, and Control: The Impact of AI”. Find the recording here.

EISA conference

13-17 September 2021

Hendrik Huelss presented two conference papers on the evolution of computer vision and implications for warfare as well as on the problem of meaningful human control at the 14th Pan-European Conference of the European International Studies Association (EISA).

Guangyu Qiao-Franco also presented her research on cross-level analysis in practice theories at the EISA conference. Her research builds on an empirical study on China’s domestic and foreign policies on autonomous weapons, which is intended to complement international practice theory by providing an informative approach for conceptualising cases featuring divides between domestic and international practices.

SPS' 21 conference

8-10 September 2021

Ingvild Bode, Anna Nadibaidze, and Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented their research at the interdisciplinary Science Peace Security 21 conference.

Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented a two-level analysis (international and domestic levels) of China’s positions on autonomous weapons systems.

Anna Nadibaidze looked into the role of great power identity in Russia’s discourse on LAWS.

Ingvild Bode examined how existing weapons systems with autonomous features shape what counts as meaningful human control. 

Participant observation at the UN GGE on LAWS

9-13 August 2021

Anna Nadibaidze represented AutoNorms at the first session of the UN Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on emerging technologies in the area of the Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS), which took place in Geneva. During the informal part of the session, Anna presented AutoNorms’ research, with an emphasis on the importance of examining existing weapons with autonomous and automated features for determining the elements of meaningful human control. Read Anna’s statement to the GGE here.

BISA conference

21-23 June 2021

Ingvild Bode presented two conference papers on non-verbal practices and norms as well as on visual analysis at the British International Studies Association (BISA) annual conference.

Hendrik Huelss also presented a paper on changing visual regimes and warfare.

ACUNS conference

25 June 2021 

Guangyu Qiao-Franco presented the research she conducted in cooperation with Ingvild Bode on China’s emerging understanding of what constitutes appropriate human control over the use of force at the 2021 annual meeting of the Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS).  The presentation contained a detailed analysis of China’s international statements and a stocktaking of relevant practices within which opposing notions of permissible scope of human control were internalised by the Chinese leadership.

Invited presentation

2 June 2021 

Ingvild Bode presented her research on how non-verbal practices shape norms in the context of weapons systems with automated and autonomous features as part of the research seminar organised by the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy, University of Hamburg. 

ISA conference

8 April 2021

Ingvild Bode delivered a talk on “Non-verbal practices and the making of norms” at the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association (ISA), held online.

Invited presentation

4 May 2021 

Ingvild Bode presented her research on how non-verbal practices shape norms in the context of weapons systems with automated and autonomous features as part of the Sandhurst Defence Forum at the Royal Military Academic Sandhurst.  

Participation in a webinar

25 March 2021

Ingvild Bode participated in a webinar to launch the new report “Meaning-less Human Control”, written by Ingvild Bode and Tom Watts. The event featured a presentation of the report’s main findings, as well as comments by two experts: Maaike Verbruggen (Institute of European Studies, VUB) and Richard Moyes (Article 36), followed by Q&A. Peter Burt (Drone Wars UK) moderated the event. 

Watch a recording of the event here.